The Republic of Lebanon is an Arab country with Beirut as its capital, and it is located on the shore overlooking the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Cultural and commercial at that time, and its rugged terrain played an important role throughout the resort's history. of several groups, and it was declared a republic in 1926 AD, and in 1946 AD, Lebanon gained independence after the French Mandate.
To learn more about the capital of Lebanon, you can read my article: What is the capital of Lebanon, and the city of Beirut.
The history of Lebanon
Lebanon was under the jurisdiction of Syria and included: Tripoli, Beirut, Sidon, Tire and surrounding coastal cities. After World War I, the Arab countries were divided according to the Sykes-Picot agreement of 1916 AD into British and French regions. in which Lebanon was under the control of France, and France drew the borders between Syria and Lebanon, in 1920 the French authorities announced the creation of the State of Lebanon and the 'named Greater Lebanon, and during this period the Lebanese struggled for independence, and began in several stages. The first stage of independence took place on November 26, 1941, January 1 1944, France gave full powers to the Lebanese authority, and in 1946, France left the territory of the Lebanese State.
The system of government in Lebanon
The system of government of the Lebanese Republic is considered parliamentary and democratic, headed by the President of the Republic, and his mandate lasts 6 years, and the most important characteristic of the Lebanese Republic is its enjoyment of democracy, since it focuses primarily on respect for freedoms in all their forms, such as the freedom of public opinion and belief, and that it respects all the rights of citizens without any infringement of the freedom of others, and that it calls for equality in rights and duties without discrimination, and demands respect for social justice As for the Lebanese constitution, it is implemented in accordance with the National Charter of 1943 AD, and the At present, the number of electoral districts has been reduced from 23 to 15 elections, so that it is allowed to choose the most suitable candidate from the approved electoral list, and they are elected every 4 years. 
Flag of Lebanon
The Lebanese flag has undergone several changes in its shape and colors; Due to the multiplicity of authorities that have governed Lebanon, but the flag used at present is rectangular in shape, divided into three horizontal parts colored red in the upper and lower part, and white in the middle, so that the thickness of the white part is twice the lower and upper red part, and in the middle is a cedar with a green trunk, and the current flag was adopted after the end of the French mandate and its independence on December 7, 1943. [ 6]
There are symbolic connotations for the colors of the current Lebanese flag, which are:
geography of lebanon
geography of lebanon
Location in Lebanon
The Republic of Lebanon is located in the Middle East on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea. It is the second smallest country in the Middle East. Its coordinates lie between latitudes 33° 03 and 04° 34 N and longitudes 35° 06 and 36° 37° E. The average length of the country is 217 km from north to south, and its width varies from 80 to north at 48 to the south, it is bordered to the northeast by Syria with a length of 403 km, and it is bordered by the occupied State of Palestine to the south with a length of 81 km, and on the other The Western Mediterranean is 225 km long, has a total area of 10,452 km2 and a land area is approximately 10,230 km2.
The area of the water bodies is about 170 km2, due to the small size of the Republic of Lebanon, its population density and the lack of natural resources.
The geographical location has given the Lebanese state several important roles, including:
It is a country with a commercial, cultural and banking centre.
To learn more about the geography and location of Lebanon, you can read the Where is Lebanon article.
Governorates of Lebanon
Administratively, the Lebanese Republic is divided into eight main governorates and four main regions in terms of geography. To know more about the governorates of Lebanon, you can consult the article What is the number of governorates in Lebanon.
The climate of Lebanon
Lebanon is characterized by a Mediterranean climate, and it goes through four seasons, and in general, the period of precipitation extends between the months of November and March, followed by a dry period in which the percentage of precipitation decreases, and the amount of annual precipitation precipitation varies between cities in Lebanon. Precipitation varies between 1000 and 1400 mm, in the center and north of the Bekaa it varies between 200 and 600 mm, and in the south the amount of rain is estimated between 600 and 1000 mm, and in coastal areas it varies between 600 and 800 mm.
Lebanon is usually affected by a winter storm between the months of December and February, and in summer it is affected by subtropical anticyclones between the months of June and August, and there are future expectations for climate change;  as the results of the International Committee on Climate Change (IPCC) indicated), as the amount of rain is expected to decrease by 20 to 30%, in addition to an increase in temperatures between 2° and 3° C at the end of the 21st century.
Demographics of Lebanon
Population density in Lebanon
According to the approved United Nations data on the website (www.worldometers.info), the population of Lebanon, more precisely on December 17, 2019 AD, reached 6,841,668 people, and it is constantly increasing, and ranks thus ranked 108th among the countries of the world in terms of population, that is, it constitutes 0.09% of the total population of the world, and when comparing the area of Lebanon with the population of Lebanon, it becomes clear that there is overcrowding, since the number of individuals reaches 670 people per 1 km2, and there is a large concentration of the population in urban cities, where 78.5% of the population lives The population is in urban areas, and the majority of people live near the coast of the Mediterranean, while the population density is less in the Bekaa Valley, southeast of the mountains of Lebanon, because it is considered an agricultural zone.
Here are the demographics:
Ethnic composition: Arabs, Armenians and others.
Religions: Muslims, Christians, Druze and others.
Languages: Arabic, French, English and Armenian.
Births: 14.1 births per 1,000 people (2018).
Deaths: 5.1 deaths per 1,000 people (2018).
Population age: 0-14 years: 23.32% men and women, 15-24 years: 16.04% men and women, 25-54 years: 45.27% men and women, 55-64 years: 8 .34% men and women, 65 and over: 7.03% of men and women.
Average age: males: 30.7 years old, females: 31.9 years old.
Urban population: 88.8%.
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male/female, 0-14 years: 1.05 male/female, 15-24 years: 1.05 male/female, 25-54 years: 1.03 male/female, 55-64 years: 0.9 male/female, 65 years or older: 0.76 male/female.
To know more about the population of Lebanon, you can see my article: What is the population of Lebanon, the area of Lebanon and its population.
Language and religion in Lebanon
The Arabic language is the official language in Lebanon, and retrospectively, the Phoenician language is the oldest language spoken among the population in the Lebanese territories and is called the Canaanite language. After that, the Syriac and Aramaic languages associated with the Phoenician language spread, and the Aramaic language became the language that circulated among the people until the beginning of the 2nd century AD. After that, the Syriac language became the dominant language until the end of the 10th century. century, and it changed many letters and introduced new sounds in the language, and with the occurrence of Islamic conquests, the Arabic language dominated Lebanon, which separated from the Aramaic language and became its language official.
The Arabic language has mixed with the Aramaic language, and the colloquial language has developed with its various dialects of the Syrian dialect. They are considered one of the official languages of the country, but government publications are written in Arabic and in French, and with the domination of the American forces in the world, the importance of the English language has increased and certain secondary languages have spread in the country such as the Armenian language, the Assyrian language and the Syriac language which is used at religious purposes.[ 10] ]
The Lebanese constitution provides for freedom of belief and guarantees the freedom to practice religious rites in a manner that is not contrary to public order. Lebanon statistics indicate that about 61.1% of the population profess the Islamic religion, and statistics indicate that 33.7% of the population profess the Christian religion, constituting The Druze make up about 5.2% of the Lebanese people, and there is a small percentage of certain other sects.
The private sector plays a fundamental and important role in various economic fields, especially in the service sector, and the financial and banking sector, which represent 70% of the Lebanese national income. While olives, grapes, tobacco, figs and almonds are grown on the slopes of the hills, while at heights of up to 460 meters grow crops of peach, apricot and cherry trees, while apple and pear trees grow at heights of up to 900 meters.
The Lebanese pound is the official currency used in the Republic
The Lebanese pound is currently in paper and coins, and the pound is divided into several categories: 1,000 pounds, 5,000 pounds, 10,000 pounds, 20,000 pounds, 50,000 pounds and 100,000 pounds, and the coin is: 250 pounds and 500 pounds. lira, and the US dollar is used as currency by individuals in some places, such as restaurants and hotels.
To know more about the currency of Lebanon, you can consult the article What is the currency of Lebanon.
Culture in Lebanon
Lebanon is one of the countries with multiple cultures; Due to the succession of civilizations and cultures, and because the majority of the population is Arab, Arab culture is the dominant culture in Lebanese society, and the influence of the Lebanese people on the cultures of the West appears as the result of the French mandate and its proximity to Greece, which led to the openness of the Lebanese people, and one of the habits to which they adhere. The Lebanese people have their collective loyalty, because they work within the group away from individual interests, so they feel protected and loyal.
As for Lebanese cuisine, it is famous for its delicious and healthy dishes, and it consists of vegetables, fruits, milk, olives and olive oil.Kibbeh is one of the popular national dishes in the Lebanon, and more than one dish may be served in a single meal such as stuffed grape leaves, tabbouleh, hummus and pickles, and grilled meat, and as with public holidays, there are many public holidays due of the multiplicity of religious sects, so there are many holidays for each sect, also as national holidays, and art is part of the culture of Lebanon, where cultural life there varies, and the state organizes many festivals, the most important of which is the Baalbek International Festival, and a number of Lebanese artists have emerged in theater, world opera, film and television productions, and one of the most important dances in Lebanon is the Dabke, and is famous for the zajal as one of the types of e popular poetry, and the artist Fairouz represents the icon of Lebanese culture.
Tourism in Lebanon
The Lebanese Republic is distinguished by its cultural and historical importance since Antiquity. Due to the emergence of a number of civilizations with different cultures in its lands, and the presence of some important monuments such as: Ottoman baths, Phoenician cities, Mamluk mosques, Crusader castles and Roman temples have grown its historical heritage which attracts tourists. from all over the world, making it a country that is significantly dependent on tourism, which greatly affects economic growth.
To learn more about the most important things that Lebanon is famous for and that a tourist may be interested in when visiting, you can read an article about what Lebanon is famous for.
Types of tourism in Lebanon
There are many types of tourism depending on their destination, and here are their types:
Cultural tourism: There are many castles, inscriptions, mosaics, temples, coffins, statues, jewelry, pots, coins, in addition to sculptures and paintings, and due to the diversity of civilizations that followed Lebanon, from many private and public museums have been established, some of them inside religious sanctuaries and monasteries, and some inside archaeological sites.
Nature tourism and adventure tourism: Lebanon has a unique and diverse nature that combines the coast, snowy mountainous areas, rugged peaks and cedar forests, in addition to its biological diversity. Various types including: swimming, parasailing, water skiing, snowboarding, horseback riding, archery, diving and rock climbing.
Religious tourism: Lebanon was distinguished by its various religious sects, as well as by the presence of the largest religions in the world, namely:
Islam and Christianity, which has created a blend of religious heritage and traditions, and is a religious destination for Christian pilgrims.
For more information on tourism in Lebanon, you can consult the article on tourism in Lebanon.
The most important tourist places in Lebanon
There are many tourist spots in Lebanon, including:
The Temple of Bacchus: Considered one of the best Roman temples in Lebanon, it was built in the middle of the 1st century AD. It includes a portico whose curved stone roof rests on 8 columns in the facade of the building, and 15 columns distributed on both sides.
Ruins of Baalbek: It is considered one of the most important monuments in the Middle East, where art festivals are held, and it also includes the remains of archaeological structures and the Roman theater.
The National Museum of Beirut: (English: National Museum of Beirut), a cultural museum that includes archaeological artifacts dating from successive civilizations.
Shouf Biosphere Reserve: It is considered the largest cedar nature reserve in the country, as it constitutes about 5% of the surface area of Lebanon, includes 250 km of hiking trails and is home to more than 200 species of birds and mammals (deer, porcupines, wolves, and others), and is the departure point for migratory birds between Europe and Africa.
Al Bass Archaeological Site: Its construction dates back to Roman times during the reign of Hadrian in the 2nd century AD. It includes many tombs, decorated coffins and a field of horses.
MIM Museum: (English: MIM), a landmark that was opened at St. Joseph's University, to display minerals, marine fossils, and some types of dinosaurs through interactive displays.
The Main Square: (English: Main Square), which is an exhibition of architectural masterpieces, in which the Prince Fakhruddin Al Ma'ni Mosque was built in 1493 AD, the Shoemaker's Market, which contains tourist shops, and Khan al-Harir, which was built in 1595 AD and is a cultural center.
St. George's Crypt Museum: The 1975 bombing of the Orthodox Cathedral led to the discovery of antiquities under the silver lining, which date back to the Seleucid State and the Middle Ages.
Al Mina: It is a branching network of streets in the port area of Tripoli, and combines modernity and tradition, and the coexistence of Orthodox and Islamic religions. On many cafes and shops.
Beiteddine Palace: This is an ancient archaeological site in the Chouf Mountains. It was built during the Ottoman era in the 19th century by order of Prince Bashir Shehab II. It is characterized by luxurious traditional Arabic designs and offers a view of the surrounding hills in the palace.
Jeita Grotto: Located 18 km northeast of the capital, Beirut, and one of the most important natural sites in the Middle East. It formed a tourist attraction in 1969. It is a cave divided into two parts, namely: the upper cave accessible by cable car and the lower cave accessible by boat.
Temple of Jupiter, a huge Roman temple that was built in the first century BC
Its length is more than 90 meters, and the entrance leads to a hexagonal courtyard - added in the 2nd century AD - then there is a central courtyard consisting of two altars surrounded by columns of pink and gray granite, and there is a small room with a statue of the god, and a portico surrounded by 19 columns distributed on the sides, and 10 columns on the facade.
To know more about the most important tourist attractions in Lebanon, you can consult the article "Tourist sites of Lebanon".
Transport in Lebanon
Lebanon seeks to redevelop its transport system through multiple projects, where many bridges and tunnels have been established. Traffic is congested in urban areas as most families have their own car and public transport such as buses and taxis are available throughout Lebanon.
Taxis are the most common way in Lebanon and can accommodate up to 6 passengers when traveling long distances, as buses are used by all local residents and tourists and are evenly spread across cities , but to a lesser extent than taxis, and their presence is less in remote areas of cities, and bicycles are sometimes used to get around in certain areas, and as for trains, they are not used in Beirut; Due to its small area
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Lebanon is known for its big achievements in the regional music scene, as many world famous Arabic music artists hail from this country. Today, music in Lebanon is becoming more international, and many singers use English lyrics to widen their audience. Some famous bands are Mashrou' Leila and Who Killed Bruce Lee